Since the “Conditae” Constitution of December 8, 1900 and the decrees of June 28, 1901, we have precise rules to distinguish congregations subject to pontifical law. Before formally approving a Congregation and its Constitutions, the Holy See is accustomed to praising first the intentions of its founders and the purpose of the Foundation, and then the Congregation itself. The second decree of recommendation has the effect of placing the Congregation among the number of persons subject to pontifical law and in particular to the second part of the Constitution “Conditae”. Bizzarri gives in his “Collectanea” a list of municipalities that were thus leased until 1864 (1st edition, 864 sqq.). As a general rule, this license to practice medicine is granted only after the Congregation has existed for some time under the authority of the bishop. The congregations are constituted on the model of the most recent orders, that is to say, they group together several houses, each headed by a local superior, under the indirect authority of a superior general; Many, but not all, of them are divided into provinces. Many form tertiary communities which, as such, share the spiritual privileges of the order to which they belong. Except in the case of a special privilege, such as that which subordinates the Daughters of Charity to the Superior General of missionary priests (see decree of May 25, 1888), the Holy See no longer allows a bishop, the delegate of a bishop or the superior general of a congregation for men to stand above a congregation of sisters. Prior to the 1901 by-laws, the rules of the new municipalities differed in many respects. The following internal government details apply to newly established churches rather than older ones, such as the Ladies of the Sacred Heart. The Benedictines, officially known as the Order of St. Benedict, are a monastic community that follows the rules established by St.
Benedict. These rules include devotion to their community, the transfer of full jurisdiction to the abbots and abbesses who live in their abbey. This includes indicating which books can be read, which activities are regulated and, if necessary, what sanctions are imposed. They follow a tight schedule every day and have hours of silence. When the persecutions of the third century drove many into the wilderness, the solitary life produced many heroines; And when monks started living in monasteries, there were also communities of women. Saint Pachomius (292-346) built a convent where a number of nuns lived with his sister. Jerome made the monastery of St. Paula famous in Bethlehem. St. Augustine addressed a letter of instruction to the nuns, from whom his reign was later deduced. There were monasteries of virgins or nuns in Rome, throughout Italy, Gaul, Spain and the West. The great founders or reformers of monastic or general religious life had their rules adopted by women.
Nuns in Egypt and Syria cut their hair, a practice that was only later introduced in the West. Women`s monasteries were generally located at some distance from men`s; St. Pachomius insisted on this separation, as did St. Benedict. However, there were communal houses, one wing for women and the other for men, more often adjacent houses for both sexes. Justinian abolished these semi-detached houses to the east, appointed an old man to take care of the secular affairs of the monastery, and appointed a priest and a deacon to carry out their duties but not to communicate otherwise with the nuns. In the West, there were such semi-detached houses among the Hospitallers even in the twelfth century. In the eighth and ninth centuries, a number of clergy of the main Churches of the West, without being bound by religious denominations, chose to live in community and observe a rule of firm life. This canonical life was also led by women who withdrew from the world, took vows of chastity, were modestly dressed in black, but were not obliged to give of their possessions.
Continence and some religious denomination were required of married women whose husbands were in holy orders or even receiving episcopal ordination. The constitutional monastery is a form of monastery defined by the norms of the rule and the constitutions of the individual order. It is generally less strict than the papal monastery. This type of monastery is practiced when the charism of the community combines with its life of contemplation a kind of apostolic or charitable work. They are still cloistered sisters, but they may have an apostolate attached to the convent – such as a retirement home – that could not be done if they practiced the papal precinct. Cor Orans says of the constitutional monastery: “It must be a space of silence and recollection, where the constant search for the face of God can develop according to the charism of the Institute, taking into account the works of apostolate or charity carried out by the nuns” (No.