Minas Legales En Colombia

When Mongabay asked ANLA if it was aware of deforestation in legal mining areas, the company said it was responsible for assessing, issuing and monitoring environmental licenses, including tools such as licenses to use and exploit natural resources. “The logging permit links measures to ensure resource renewal in areas where technical studies demonstrate better suitability for the use of non-forest lands, or where there are reasons of public interest and social interest,” ANLA said in an email. Colombia is located on the Pacific Rim line, which is considered a strategic strip with copper potential. It currently imports about 70% of the copper needed for domestic industry, and domestic production barely reaches 50,000 tons. Copper mines are located in Antioquia (AngloCold Ashanti), Chocó (El Roble, Minera Cobre, Volador-Rugby Mining) and Córdoba (Minerales Córdoba). [24] Areas with mining potential where copper porphyry is found are: the western belt of the Eocene: (Antioquia, Chocó, Nariño). Eastern Jurassic Belt: (Tolima, Huila, Santander and Putumayo) Miocene Central Belt (Cauca). [25] Results of Caesar. [26] Although the study does not directly name the fellows responsible for deforestation, Mongabay obtained the information from the researchers. According to these data, the highest rates of deforestation in legal mining concessions were found in Carbones del Cerrejón LLC (4710 hectares in the department of La Guajira), Midrae Gold SAS (2765 hectares in Antioquia) and Cerro Matoso SA (2654 hectares in Antioquia and Córdoba). According to the document, legal mining has been ignored as a driver of deforestation in the past, although the authors show that forest loss increased after the signing of the peace agreement in 2016 between the Colombian government and the guerrilla Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – FARC), and that 2017 was the worst year of deforestation caused by mining. with 22,000 hectares of cleared forest.

“The area was cleaned up before we got the titles in 2012. We have not even reached the exploration stage, and we have only done a few prospective studies. As a result, illegal miners have entered the site, and they may be responsible for deforestation in recent years,” Ruiz replies. On the other hand, the largest areas of the territory eligible for the development of mining projects are 22% under the jurisdiction of the Government of Antioquia, followed by PAR Cartagena and PAR Valledupar with 10% each. We can also confirm that mining is developing in most Colombian areas, specifically in 30 of the 32 departments and in the capital district. “Of the 10 major legal mega-deforestation concessions, we can say several things: each of these polygons has a deforestation of more than 1600 hectares and 5 of the 10 most deforested concessions are located in the municipality of Remedios [in Antioquia], a city of 20,000 inhabitants,” says Quesada. Cerro Matoso, the third largest company and also a well-known company in Colombia`s mining sector, said its mining activities covered only 274 hectares of forest between 2001 and 2018. The researchers found that of the 8600 mining concessions with permits granted by the Colombian government over these nearly two decades, only 100 contributed to most of the deforestation.

In each of these concessions, at least 400 hectares of forest have been cleared, an area equivalent to more than 500 football fields. At the time of the colony, in ancient New Granada, the first settlers observed how indigenous tribes processed various minerals such as gold, emeralds, quartz and others. Since 1500, the conquerors have begun a process of colonization of the indigenous population. The decline of the indigenous population led to the importation of slaves from Africa as new labor for mining. On the other hand, in the exercise of sovereignty over the lands of the colonial territory, the Spanish crown used the post-classical Roman model of the licensing system, which consisted of paying a counterpart for a concession in the exploitation of a mineral deposit. Thus, towards the end of 1850, with the introduction of the mining register, there was a more direct control of the mining activity of the country. At that time, there were 106 registered mines, most of which were located in Antioquia and southern Bolivia. Second, the Rionegro Constitution of 1863 gave the newly formed states of the United States of Colombia the power to enact laws on mineral ownership, where it was provided that certain minerals were owned by the owner of the land. The Constitution of 1886 restores to the nation (called the Republic of Colombia by that party, as the nation is known to this day) all mines that were under the domination of the federated states. [11] [12] For example, the study found that 23 percent of recent deforestation in Antioquia – a major gold producer – takes place on legal mining concessions. The scientific article shows that in February 2019, according to the National Mining Authority (ANM), mining applications accounted for 8.56% of Colombian territory. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, large mining companies began to invade Colombia due to the facilities provided by the government of the time to settle in the country, ineffective control mechanisms and lack of regulation of mining activities caused this industry to develop disorganized until the 80s.

[11] [12] In 1988, the Colombian mining law was promulgated, by Legislative Decree 2655, which defines the concepts of legal and illegal exploration and exploitation of minerals. They are currently subject to the Mining Policy in 2016 and the National Mining Development Plan 2018-2025. [13] The use of new technologies such as geometallurgy, cyanide mining, mobile metal ions, wastewater management and sustainable mine closure is presented. [14] By 2023, the use of mercury in mining will be banned. [15] If you have any questions about the legal scope or implications of the law, formalization requirements, and informal mining reporting mechanisms in the area of your title, please contact the authors. Mining in Colombia is regulated by the National Mining Agency, the Colombian Geological Service, the National Hydrocarbons Authority and, more generally, the Ministry of Mines and Energy. Due to the model of economic openness introduced in 1990 by Cesar Gaviria and reaffirmed by Presidents Álvaro Uribe Vélez and Juan Manuel Santos, a large amount of foreign capital came to invest in the country, exploiting Colombian resistance both nationally and transnationally. Currently, 70% of mining production is in the hands of multinational companies as part of an extractivism policy facilitated by legislation and paramilitarism. [29] While the data is worrying, the study also shows that there are reasons for optimism: about half of Colombia`s legal mining concessions have cleared less than one hectare and about 2500 concessions have recorded little forest loss – that is, less than 0.09 hectares cleared. “We estimate that the carbon loss due to forest clearing in Colombian legal mines is equivalent to 34.3 Mt CO2 [million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent].

This means that the mining sector would add 30% more carbon footprint,” says Quesada. According to Benjamín Quesada, there is another important environmental actor that needs to act in this area: regional autonomous bodies, which have the power to impose sanctions in these cases, but, as he says, do not assess the impact of mining companies on forests, “but focus on issues such as social security for miners. possible chemical leaks and water consumption in mines. The Act regulates instruments such as the financing of operations carried out with funds from the Mining Development Fund, which consist in supporting the management of resources intended for the financing of projects, programs and works of exploration, feasibility, technical and environmental studies, assembly, exploitation, marketing of minerals, closure and abandonment of mines, as well as in the use, conversion, transportation and shipment of minerals solely for the development of subsistence mining or artisanal mining. The state and citizens are the owners of Colombia`s subsoil, and the right to explore/exploit the country`s natural resources, in this case minerals, is granted through mining titles issued by the National Mining Authority (ANM). Of the 114 million hectares in the national territory, only 5% is dedicated to mining activities, including 2.3% for exploration, 1.6% for construction and assembly and 1.1% for exploitation. The oil industry in Colombia is one of the main drivers of the economy. The history of hydrocarbon extraction begins in 1538, when Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada found crude oil in Manaderos near the Colombian city of Barrancabermeja, home to the country`s main refinery, which processes 95% of the national demand for fuel and other petroleum derivatives and leaves the rest to the Cartagena refinery (Reficar).